Drill pipe is made from steel piping and is hollow with thick walls. It is used both vertically on drilling rigs and horizontally in horizontal directional drilling applications. It is available in several sizes, weights, and strengths. The typical drill pipe is 30 to 33 feet long, and is hollow so that drilling fluid may be pumped through it into the bore hole. Although drill pipe is most commonly associated with the oil and gas industries, it is also used for underground construction where holes need to be bored horizontally. Drill pipe is sometimes used for drilling water wells too.
What Is Required of Drill Pipe?
Drill pipe must be manufactured to exacting specifications. It must be able to support its own weight in drilling strings that may go more than a mile deep into the earth's crust. As you might surmise, case-hardened drill pipes are expensive. For this reason, industries generally reuse them after the well is completed, replacing them with less expensive tubular casing during operation. The used drill pipe is inspected, sorted, and stored for use later on new drill sites. Special instruments are used by inspectors to look for defects in the drill pipe's metallurgy that could cause it to fracture in a future drilling operation.
The Various Parts of a Drill Pipe
Drill pipes are attached together to create a drill string. Drill pipe manufacturers have to make drill pipe that conforms to standards that allow it to withstand the extremely demanding conditions of a well bore. Drill pipe provides the fluid stream that is used for drilling and pumping out mud, and it undergoes rotating motion so that the drill bit can drill into the earth. Heavy weight drill pipe has a higher tensile strength than regular drill pipe and is placed near the top of the drill string for support.
Choosing Among Drill Pipe Manufacturers
Choosing a drill pipe manufacturer is obviously a very important task. The drill pipe matched to a particular task must be able to support the load placed on it, and hence yield strength of the pipe is a critical factor. If a drill pipe is unable to support the necessary load, it becomes deformed, and at that point cannot be recovered even if the load is removed from it. Deformation of drill pipe reduces its strength, and this could cause it to collapse altogether. Companies that manufacture drill pipe must have rigid inspection standards to ensure that it conforms to applicable international standards.
Drill Pipe Maintenance
To make drill pipe last as long as possible, it must be cleaned thoroughly between uses, and the threads, tube body, sealing shoulder, and joint dimensions must all be inspected after use. The internal coating of the drill pipe should be inspected and reapplied if necessary because drill pipes can succumb to environmental conditions without the proper protective coating. During use, rod threads must be kept clean with the use of thread protectors to keep them in good working order. Without proper maintenance and inspection, an operator may not get more than 65% or so of the life they could expect from their drill pipes.
Step One: Get to know your tools.
If you are to learn how to install ceramic tile flooring the right way, then you must start with having the right tools. You can buy most of the tools you'll need for working on your floor tiling at your local hardware store or home center. For equipment that might be too expensive to purchase like a tile cutter, or hand held micro cutter, try your local home center or tool rental yard. They may have the tools you'll need at affordable rental prices, or even at discount. And if you're a newbie at tiling work, they may even help you with information. Here are most of the basic tools you will need for your tiling job:
a) These would include safety clothing and gear like a pair of safety glasses, heavy leather gloves, and long-sleeved work clothes. These are useful especially if your tiling work involves taking out the existing ceramic tiles. Broken shards and other debris from tearing out the ceramic tiles can cause nasty cuts.
b) Carpentry tools like a tape measure, a carpenter's square and a bubble level.
c) A tile cutter (which you can rent), some tile spacers, a putty knife, a trowel (preferably, the notched kind), and a rubber grout float.
d) Mortar material for bonding your tiles to your subfloor surface, like a thin set mortar, or tile adhesive, tiling grout and sealant.
Step Two: Prepare your subfloor before installing your tiles.
This is where the tiling procedure begins. It would be a great experience for you to learn how to install ceramic tile by learning about the type of floors you will be putting your tiles on. Always check for cracks and debris when If you're working on a concrete subfloor. Make it is smooth and clean. Repair as many of the cracks as you can. If you see cracks that are too large to repair, replace the floor section where they are found with new concrete. For plywood subfloors, be sure that the wood is at least 1 and 1/8 inches thick and is supported by an equally strong underlayment. Otherwise, your ceramic tiles will dislodge easily, or worse, break and need replacing.
An existing ceramic tile floor may add another stage to your tiling job, and present something of a challenge for you. You'll need to tear out the existing tiles. For starters, all you need to do is use a large flat-bladed chisel and a mallet, and just hammer away. Then, you'll need to clean out the debris. If you to smoothen your subfloor -- you may want to rent a sander to do the job. Be sure to keep yourself protected. Use heavy-duty leather work gloves, safety glasses, and long-sleeved work clothes.
Step Three: Do the measurements. To know where to start and how to install ceramic tile on your subfloor, begin by measuring the length and width of your floor. This will help you estimate the number of ceramic floor tiles you will need to purchase. Then, find the center point of your floor area. You Measure across floor area and mark the center. Do this in opposite direction and mark the center, as well. The intersection of the two lines is the center of the floor area where you can start your tiling work. To help with your tiling, run chalk lines over the intersection lines. These chalk lines will help you with how to install ceramic tile and help you keep your tiling straight and organized.
Step Four: Start work on your ceramic tile installation
Your first tile should be placed at the intersection of the two lines you made. Then, bond it to your subfloor by using a thin set mortar, or a tile adhesive of your choice. Using a notched trowel for applying the mortar is best on how to install ceramic tile. But you may actually use the more common trowel variety is you don't have one. To secure the ceramic tile in its place, press down while twisting it back and forth till the tile no longer is set. If some of the mortar or adhesive oozes out, use your trowel (or a damp sponge) to scrape off the excess. Do this process over with the next tile, and so on and so forth, until you've finished your ceramic floor tiling.
Step Five: Finish your tiling job by putting in the tiling grout and sealant
After your ceramic floor tiles have set, it's time to put the tiling grout in. Tiling grout is a material that you should know more about when you want to know how to install ceramic tile flooring. Grout is tiling material made cement, sand and water, and a little color. It is used to fill in gaps and seal in the spaces between tiles. Tiling grout comes in a wide variety of color tints that may be matched to your tile color. Use a rubber grout float and work the tiling grout into the gaps between the tiles. Use your grout float at an angle so that you can fill in the joint gap with as much tiling grout as possible.
Once you're done with applying grout along the tile gaps, wipe off the excess grout with a damp sponge. Rinse the sponge frequently to get as much of the excess grout off, and keep each tile clean. You have the option of applying a sealant to the grout lines after they dry.
Of course, make sure that you give time for the grout to dry before applying the sealant. These setting periods last overnight, at the very least, to twenty-four hours, at the most. Your sealant has dried, you are done! Congratulations! Now, you know how to install ceramic tile flooring.
Untreated lumber can be a major problem when it comes to exporting and importing because it has a tendency to spread pests. However, the U.S. has instituted the heat treatment program as a way to curb this problem. This is why lumber for export must be treated with heat or with methyl bromide fumigation.
Exported lumber falls under the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures, which is known in the industry as ISPM15. The International Plant Protection Convention adopted these measures as a way to keep pests from spreading between countries that are importing or exporting wood and other types of plants. ISPM15 is the standard all heat treated lumber for export must follow. Even wood that is used as packing material must follow these guidelines.
One of the biggest problems with exporting heat treated lumber is making sure that the proper mark gets on the product before it gets loaded onto the ship or aircraft that is transporting it.
The international heat treatment programs require that the quality or treatment mark on the product meet these standards:
* It must contain the trademark of the agency, also known as the logo or official symbol of the accredited agency.
* It must identify the facility. A number is used to tell where the product came from, the name of the manufacturer, and the brand.
* It must indicate whether the product is heat treated or methyl bromide treated.
* It must have the proper country code.
* The international symbol indicating that the product meets IPPC standards for lumber for export must be part of the stamp.
* Heat treated lumber for export that will be used as wood dunnage must be marked with the letters DUN.
It is important to realize that no company or individual can create their own mark according to these guidelines. Every manufacturer of heat treated lumber for export must be registered with the proper accrediting agencies. But the good news is that once lumber has been treated and marked properly for export, that treatment does not expire, no matter how long it has been since the treatment. The only exception to the rule is if the wood has been either recycled or repaired.
All business owners and managers dealing with imports and exports of any kind should take steps to understand international laws and guidelines dealing with lumber for export - even if that lumber is simply being used as packaging material. This is one of those details that can easily get overlooked, especially if you are concerned with your product getting to another country in good shape. But when you are talking about exports, everything - even the packaging - is under scrutiny. You don't want to be responsible for the spread of pests, and you don't want to deal with having your products destroyed because you did not follow international rules and regulations.
International law is certainly nothing to mess around with. You need a company that understands the finer details of importing and exporting. This will help give your business a leg up against the competition. Every business owner needs all of his suppliers and vendors looking for him. If they aren't, then it's time to get new ones.